Lus [40?3]. Recent multicentre studies however, have failed to reproduce the therapeutic

Lus [40?3]. Recent multicentre studies however, have failed to reproduce the therapeutic effect of sulodexide [21,44]. In these large multicentre studies, data from all patients irrespective of race were pooled together and it is possible that any beneficial effect of sulodexide treatment in certain subpopulations may have been lost. Discrepancies between the earlier studies and those of the recent multicentre studies may also be a consequence of differences in treatment duration, recruitment of type I or type II diabetic patients, severity of albuminuria when patients started treatment, rate of absorption of sulodexide from the gastrointestinal tract and drug formulation [44]. There are few mechanistic studies that have investigated the effect of sulodexide on renal histology. We demonstrated a direct and beneficial effect of sulodexide on various disease parameters associated with DN without affecting blood glucose levels. Sulodexide-treated DN mice demonstrated a reduction in albuminuria, serum levels of urea and mesangial expansion that was associated with increased perlecan expression, and Madecassoside price downregulation of ERK phosphorylation, TGF-b1 and heparanase expression, and collagen type I and IV deposition. Our results showed that sulodexide treatment restored perlecan expression to a level similar to that observed in non-diabetic mice. We previously demonstrated that high glucose concentrations induced TGF-b1 which in turn reduced the synthesis of perlecan core protein and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains in human peritoneal mesothelial cells [35]. These order CP21 pathogenic mechanisms may also apply in DN, as shown by the inverse relationship between TGF-b1 and perlecan expression in our present study. A reduction in TGF-b1 expression and the replenishment of perlecan may have contributed to the improvement in albuminuria in DN mice following sulodexide treatment. Studies have demonstrated that heparin can inhibit heparanase activity and thus reduce heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chain degradation in renal epithelial cells [37]. In this study, sulodexide was shown to reduce heparanase mRNA transcript and protein 1655472 expression in DN mice to levels detected in non-diabetic mice, and this may have also contributed to the improvement in albuminuria. In addition to its role in the regulation of the perm-selectivity of the GBM, perlecan has also been implicated in angiogenesis, stabilization of the matrix scaffold, and sequestration of growth factors such as FGF [45]. It is therefore possible that the restoration of perlecan in the glomerulus of diabetic kidneys could have various structural and functional benefits. We demonstrated that sulodexide improved renal histology in DN-treated mice, but further analysis revealed that the effect of sulodexide on signaling pathway activation and matrix protein synthesis was selective. Sulodexide effectively decreased ERK activation and collagen type I and IV mRNA and protein deposition in both glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments of the kidney with time, whereas its beneficial effect on PKC-a phosphorylation and collagen type III and fibronectin deposition was only observed within the tubulo-interstitium. Intriguingly, we noted that sulodexide markedly increased glomerular expression of collagen type III and fibronectin in DN mice despite a reduction in gene expression of these two matrix proteins. This may be explained by the fact that cortical tissue was used for our genetic studies, whereby.Lus [40?3]. Recent multicentre studies however, have failed to reproduce the therapeutic effect of sulodexide [21,44]. In these large multicentre studies, data from all patients irrespective of race were pooled together and it is possible that any beneficial effect of sulodexide treatment in certain subpopulations may have been lost. Discrepancies between the earlier studies and those of the recent multicentre studies may also be a consequence of differences in treatment duration, recruitment of type I or type II diabetic patients, severity of albuminuria when patients started treatment, rate of absorption of sulodexide from the gastrointestinal tract and drug formulation [44]. There are few mechanistic studies that have investigated the effect of sulodexide on renal histology. We demonstrated a direct and beneficial effect of sulodexide on various disease parameters associated with DN without affecting blood glucose levels. Sulodexide-treated DN mice demonstrated a reduction in albuminuria, serum levels of urea and mesangial expansion that was associated with increased perlecan expression, and downregulation of ERK phosphorylation, TGF-b1 and heparanase expression, and collagen type I and IV deposition. Our results showed that sulodexide treatment restored perlecan expression to a level similar to that observed in non-diabetic mice. We previously demonstrated that high glucose concentrations induced TGF-b1 which in turn reduced the synthesis of perlecan core protein and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains in human peritoneal mesothelial cells [35]. These pathogenic mechanisms may also apply in DN, as shown by the inverse relationship between TGF-b1 and perlecan expression in our present study. A reduction in TGF-b1 expression and the replenishment of perlecan may have contributed to the improvement in albuminuria in DN mice following sulodexide treatment. Studies have demonstrated that heparin can inhibit heparanase activity and thus reduce heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chain degradation in renal epithelial cells [37]. In this study, sulodexide was shown to reduce heparanase mRNA transcript and protein 1655472 expression in DN mice to levels detected in non-diabetic mice, and this may have also contributed to the improvement in albuminuria. In addition to its role in the regulation of the perm-selectivity of the GBM, perlecan has also been implicated in angiogenesis, stabilization of the matrix scaffold, and sequestration of growth factors such as FGF [45]. It is therefore possible that the restoration of perlecan in the glomerulus of diabetic kidneys could have various structural and functional benefits. We demonstrated that sulodexide improved renal histology in DN-treated mice, but further analysis revealed that the effect of sulodexide on signaling pathway activation and matrix protein synthesis was selective. Sulodexide effectively decreased ERK activation and collagen type I and IV mRNA and protein deposition in both glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments of the kidney with time, whereas its beneficial effect on PKC-a phosphorylation and collagen type III and fibronectin deposition was only observed within the tubulo-interstitium. Intriguingly, we noted that sulodexide markedly increased glomerular expression of collagen type III and fibronectin in DN mice despite a reduction in gene expression of these two matrix proteins. This may be explained by the fact that cortical tissue was used for our genetic studies, whereby.