Development of cardiac dysfunction in diverse pathological conditions. Fibrosis involves the

Development of cardiac dysfunction in diverse pathological conditions. Fibrosis involves the progressive over-accumulation of extracellular matrixIKKi Deficiency Promotes Cardiac HypertrophyFigure 5. IKKi deficiency exacerbates the fibrotic response that is induced by pressure overload. A, Histological sections of the left ventricle were stained with picrosirius red in the indicated groups. B, The fibrotic areas from the histological sections were quantified using an imageanalyzing system. C, The mRNA expression levels of collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, TGF-b1, TGF-b2, and CTGF in the myocardium were obtained from the indicated groups using RT-PCR analysis. *P,0.05 vs. WT/sham; # P,0.05 vs. WT/AB after AB. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053412.g(ECM) (which surrounds and interconnects cells, is present in the myocardial wall and provides a scaffold for both myocytes and non-myocytes) components in cardiac muscle [36]. The major ECM proteins (type I and III collagens) are increasingly synthesized in 18325633 the heart in response to pressure overload stimuli [36]. Moreover, the increased expression of TGF-b1 parallels the perivascular and myocardial interstitial fibrotic changes [37]. TGF-b and CTGF also modulate the proliferation of fibroblasts [30]. The present study has shown for the first time that IKKi deficiency leads to increased collagen deposition after AB andincreased mRNA levels of CTGF, TGFb and collagen I and III mRNA. These results suggest that IKKi deficiency promotes fibrosis and cardiac remodeling by enhancing collagen synthesis and up-regulating fibrotic mediators. Cardiac myocyte apoptosis is also a critical factor during the transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload to heart failure [38].The present study showed increased apoptosis in the pressure-overloaded hearts of the KO mice compared with the WT mice. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated a significant increase in the of Bax-to-BclIKKi Deficiency Promotes Cardiac HypertrophyFigure 6. Effects of IKKi on cardiac apoptosis. A, TUNEL Title Loaded From File staining of AB mice at 4 weeks post-surgery. B, TUNEL-positive cells were quantified by the examination of 3000 nuclei from10 randomly selected fields per heart. # P,0.05 vs. WT/AB after AB. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053412.gexpression ratio and the activation of caspase-3 in the hearts of the KO mice after AB. Taken together,these data indicate that IKKi deficiency could influence apoptosis by affecting apoptosisregulating proteins. The roles of IKKi in the cardiac hypertrophic response to pressure overload have not been described previously. We are one step closer to elucidating the IKKi-related mechanisms that are Ected for measurement of triglycerides, FFAs, and ketone body levels. Plasma associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy,fibrosis and apoptosis. IKKi protects against hypertrophy via negative feedback of the AKT and NF-kB signaling pathway and concurrently regulates collagen deposition and fibrotic mediators.Taken together, our findings provide a rationale for further studies on the potential therapeutic benefits of IKKi in cardiovascular disease.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: QT JD DS ZB HL. Performed the experiments: JD DS ZB HZ HG JZ RZ. Analyzed the data: JD WD YY FL QW LG ZM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: QT HL. Wrote the paper: JD DS ZB HL QT.
Hypothermia has been recognized as an effective method in reducing brain injury caused by a variety of neurological insults and may play an important role in eme.Development of cardiac dysfunction in diverse pathological conditions. Fibrosis involves the progressive over-accumulation of extracellular matrixIKKi Deficiency Promotes Cardiac HypertrophyFigure 5. IKKi deficiency exacerbates the fibrotic response that is induced by pressure overload. A, Histological sections of the left ventricle were stained with picrosirius red in the indicated groups. B, The fibrotic areas from the histological sections were quantified using an imageanalyzing system. C, The mRNA expression levels of collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, TGF-b1, TGF-b2, and CTGF in the myocardium were obtained from the indicated groups using RT-PCR analysis. *P,0.05 vs. WT/sham; # P,0.05 vs. WT/AB after AB. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053412.g(ECM) (which surrounds and interconnects cells, is present in the myocardial wall and provides a scaffold for both myocytes and non-myocytes) components in cardiac muscle [36]. The major ECM proteins (type I and III collagens) are increasingly synthesized in 18325633 the heart in response to pressure overload stimuli [36]. Moreover, the increased expression of TGF-b1 parallels the perivascular and myocardial interstitial fibrotic changes [37]. TGF-b and CTGF also modulate the proliferation of fibroblasts [30]. The present study has shown for the first time that IKKi deficiency leads to increased collagen deposition after AB andincreased mRNA levels of CTGF, TGFb and collagen I and III mRNA. These results suggest that IKKi deficiency promotes fibrosis and cardiac remodeling by enhancing collagen synthesis and up-regulating fibrotic mediators. Cardiac myocyte apoptosis is also a critical factor during the transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload to heart failure [38].The present study showed increased apoptosis in the pressure-overloaded hearts of the KO mice compared with the WT mice. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated a significant increase in the of Bax-to-BclIKKi Deficiency Promotes Cardiac HypertrophyFigure 6. Effects of IKKi on cardiac apoptosis. A, TUNEL staining of AB mice at 4 weeks post-surgery. B, TUNEL-positive cells were quantified by the examination of 3000 nuclei from10 randomly selected fields per heart. # P,0.05 vs. WT/AB after AB. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053412.gexpression ratio and the activation of caspase-3 in the hearts of the KO mice after AB. Taken together,these data indicate that IKKi deficiency could influence apoptosis by affecting apoptosisregulating proteins. The roles of IKKi in the cardiac hypertrophic response to pressure overload have not been described previously. We are one step closer to elucidating the IKKi-related mechanisms that are associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy,fibrosis and apoptosis. IKKi protects against hypertrophy via negative feedback of the AKT and NF-kB signaling pathway and concurrently regulates collagen deposition and fibrotic mediators.Taken together, our findings provide a rationale for further studies on the potential therapeutic benefits of IKKi in cardiovascular disease.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: QT JD DS ZB HL. Performed the experiments: JD DS ZB HZ HG JZ RZ. Analyzed the data: JD WD YY FL QW LG ZM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: QT HL. Wrote the paper: JD DS ZB HL QT.
Hypothermia has been recognized as an effective method in reducing brain injury caused by a variety of neurological insults and may play an important role in eme.