Via Electron Spin Resonanceradicals. As such, it has long been used

Via Electron Spin Resonanceradicals. As such, it has long been used in melanin basic research since melanin ESR signal is stable, [15?7] resistant to chemical degradation, [18] and different in eumelanin from pheomelanin. [19,20]. Previous studies investigated ESR spectra of melanoma tissues under different conditions, [21?9] including formaline fixed-, or frozen-, or paraffin-embedded specimens. However, a large study investigating ESR spectra in human melanoma specimens compared to human nevus specimens is still lacking at this moment. The main goal of the present study was to provide Fosamprenavir (Calcium Salt) strong RG7440 price support to the use of ESR spectroscopy as a reliable diagnostic help in melanoma management. To this aim we identified an endogenous ESR signal (g = 2.005) in melanoma and nonmelanoma human cell lines, then investigated this signal in mouse melanoma tissues. Finally, we investigated ESR signal in human melanoma specimens compared to human nevus specimens. A specific ESR signal was found in melanoma human tissues, significantly different from the one recorded in nevus paraffinembedded specimens; ROC analysis showed that ESR signal is able to discriminate human melanoma sections from nevi, with very high accuracy.In vivo Mouse Melanoma ModelFor in vivo mouse experiments, murine B16F10 melanoma cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) (ATCC number CRL-6475) and grown in DMEM (Hyclone, Logan, UT) with 10 FCS (Hyclone, Logan, UT) [5]. Media were completed by the addition of glutamine (2 mM) and penicillin/streptomycin (50 U/ml- 50 mg/ml) (Gibco, Carlsbad, CA). Cells were grown at 37uC with 5 CO2 and subsequently injected in the dorsal skin of 20 weeks-old male C57BL/6 mice (number of animals = 5) according to a previously reported procedure [4]. Primary melanomas were removed 2 weeks after cell-inoculation and kept on ice in a PBS solution until ESR analysis.Human Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections112 human paraffin embedded melanoma and nevus specimens were prepared as previously described [31,32]. Two experimental sets were analyzed: 26 paraffin-embedded specimens (40 microns slides) of human nevus or melanoma (13 nevi and 13 melanomas) were assigned to the “Measuring set” and were analyzed first. Then a second independent set of 86 paraffin-embedded specimens (47 nevi and 39 melanomas) was assigned to the “Validation set” and analyzed. ESR measurements were carried out according to the methodology reported below. Paraffin embedded slices were weighed and ESR data were all normalized accordingly. Slice of pure paraffin revealed no ESR signal.Methods Cell CulturesFive human melanoma cell lines from both primary and metastatic melanomas were purchased from the American 23977191 Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. SKMEL-28 (ATCC number HTB-72), SKMEL-2 (ATCC number HTB-68) and amelanotic C32 (ATCC number CRL-1585) cell lines were grown in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM) with FBS to a final concentration of 10 . SKMEL-31 cell line (ATCC number HTB-73) was grown in EMEM with FBS to a final concentration of 15 ; SKMEL-3 cell line (ATCC number HTB-69) was grown in McCoy’s 5a medium with FBS to a final concentration of 15 . SKMEL-110 human metastatic melanoma cells [4] were a kind gift of Dr. Cirielli (IDI-IRRCS, Rome) and were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with FCS to a final concentration of 10 . NHEM-neo primary melanocytes (.Via Electron Spin Resonanceradicals. As such, it has long been used in melanin basic research since melanin ESR signal is stable, [15?7] resistant to chemical degradation, [18] and different in eumelanin from pheomelanin. [19,20]. Previous studies investigated ESR spectra of melanoma tissues under different conditions, [21?9] including formaline fixed-, or frozen-, or paraffin-embedded specimens. However, a large study investigating ESR spectra in human melanoma specimens compared to human nevus specimens is still lacking at this moment. The main goal of the present study was to provide strong support to the use of ESR spectroscopy as a reliable diagnostic help in melanoma management. To this aim we identified an endogenous ESR signal (g = 2.005) in melanoma and nonmelanoma human cell lines, then investigated this signal in mouse melanoma tissues. Finally, we investigated ESR signal in human melanoma specimens compared to human nevus specimens. A specific ESR signal was found in melanoma human tissues, significantly different from the one recorded in nevus paraffinembedded specimens; ROC analysis showed that ESR signal is able to discriminate human melanoma sections from nevi, with very high accuracy.In vivo Mouse Melanoma ModelFor in vivo mouse experiments, murine B16F10 melanoma cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) (ATCC number CRL-6475) and grown in DMEM (Hyclone, Logan, UT) with 10 FCS (Hyclone, Logan, UT) [5]. Media were completed by the addition of glutamine (2 mM) and penicillin/streptomycin (50 U/ml- 50 mg/ml) (Gibco, Carlsbad, CA). Cells were grown at 37uC with 5 CO2 and subsequently injected in the dorsal skin of 20 weeks-old male C57BL/6 mice (number of animals = 5) according to a previously reported procedure [4]. Primary melanomas were removed 2 weeks after cell-inoculation and kept on ice in a PBS solution until ESR analysis.Human Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections112 human paraffin embedded melanoma and nevus specimens were prepared as previously described [31,32]. Two experimental sets were analyzed: 26 paraffin-embedded specimens (40 microns slides) of human nevus or melanoma (13 nevi and 13 melanomas) were assigned to the “Measuring set” and were analyzed first. Then a second independent set of 86 paraffin-embedded specimens (47 nevi and 39 melanomas) was assigned to the “Validation set” and analyzed. ESR measurements were carried out according to the methodology reported below. Paraffin embedded slices were weighed and ESR data were all normalized accordingly. Slice of pure paraffin revealed no ESR signal.Methods Cell CulturesFive human melanoma cell lines from both primary and metastatic melanomas were purchased from the American 23977191 Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. SKMEL-28 (ATCC number HTB-72), SKMEL-2 (ATCC number HTB-68) and amelanotic C32 (ATCC number CRL-1585) cell lines were grown in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (EMEM) with FBS to a final concentration of 10 . SKMEL-31 cell line (ATCC number HTB-73) was grown in EMEM with FBS to a final concentration of 15 ; SKMEL-3 cell line (ATCC number HTB-69) was grown in McCoy’s 5a medium with FBS to a final concentration of 15 . SKMEL-110 human metastatic melanoma cells [4] were a kind gift of Dr. Cirielli (IDI-IRRCS, Rome) and were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with FCS to a final concentration of 10 . NHEM-neo primary melanocytes (.