L alternative splice forms, which enables mosquito-specific recognition and defense against

L alternative splice forms, which enables mosquito-specific recognition and defense against a broad spectrum of pathogens [21]. It was shown that different pathogen taxa induce pathogen challenge-specific splice form repertoires in the adult mosquito [21]. Recently, multiple Ago2 mRNA variants with two types of GRRs in the N-terminal portion were demonstrated in Drosophila [16,17], where the GRRs of the long Ago2 isoform were shown to be essential for the normal function of the protein. An altered number of GRRs in long Ago2 isoform causes defects in RNAi and embryonic development that results in disruption of the midblastula transition from membrane growth to microtubulebased organelle transport [16]. However, the short Ago2 isoform with variant GRR copy numbers do not impair RISC assembly and support normal development [17]. The variation observed in N-terminal domain of short Ago2 isoform in Drosophila remains unclear [17]. In this context, the Ago isoforms revealed in this study represent an important strategy of host immune system to fight against virus invasion. As demonstrated in the present study, the Ago1A and Ago1B isoforms containing Ago1 fragment 2 provide the molecular basis for the shrimp antiviral defense. To our knowledge, our study was the first report on the roles of Ago isoforms that might be generated by alternative splicing from a single gene in host immunity against virus infection in invertebrates. Invertebrates might have evolved alternative splicing order Danusertib strategies to generate functionally different isoforms to fine-tune the host antiviral responses. In our study, Ago1A and Ago1B were shown to be involved in host immune responses against WSSV. It was revealed that the knockdown of Ago1B by a low concentration of siRNA-Ago1B significantly increased viral loads after virus challenge, suggesting that Ago1B was involved in the host defense against virusinfection. However, the silencing of Ago1B by siRNA-Ago1B at the high concentration resulted in up-regulation of Ago1A and the simultaneous up-regulation of Ago1A could compensate for the loss of Ago1B in the shrimp defense against WSSV infection. Furthermore, knockdown of Ago1A by siRNA-Ago1A at the high concentration led to a significant increase in WSSV copies, although the Ago1B mRNA levels were also up-regulated, suggesting that the up-regulation of Ago1B could not compensate for the depletion of Ago1A in shrimp antiviral immunity. Therefore, it could be inferred that the Ago1 isoforms (Ago1A and Ago1B) might be involved in different pathways to control WSSV replication in shrimp. The mechanism for the compensatory regulation of different Ago isoforms in the host antiviral immunity warranted further investigation. Overall, our study described the presence of three isoforms of the Ago1 protein in shrimp (M. japonicus) and investigated the roles of the different isoforms in antiviral shrimp response upon WSSV challenge. Silencing Ago 1A or Ago 1B significantly increased virus load compared to control shrimp (WSSV challenged only), indicating that Ago1A and Ago1B might play important roles in the host defense against virus infection. In contrast, silencing Ago 1C did not BML-275 dihydrochloride affect virus load, indicating that this isoform has no significant antiviral role. This study provided new insights into understanding the role of Ago 1 protein in antiviral response in invertebrates.Supporting InformationTable S1 Primers, probes and siRNAs used in this study.(DOC)Author ContributionsCon.L alternative splice forms, which enables mosquito-specific recognition and defense against a broad spectrum of pathogens [21]. It was shown that different pathogen taxa induce pathogen challenge-specific splice form repertoires in the adult mosquito [21]. Recently, multiple Ago2 mRNA variants with two types of GRRs in the N-terminal portion were demonstrated in Drosophila [16,17], where the GRRs of the long Ago2 isoform were shown to be essential for the normal function of the protein. An altered number of GRRs in long Ago2 isoform causes defects in RNAi and embryonic development that results in disruption of the midblastula transition from membrane growth to microtubulebased organelle transport [16]. However, the short Ago2 isoform with variant GRR copy numbers do not impair RISC assembly and support normal development [17]. The variation observed in N-terminal domain of short Ago2 isoform in Drosophila remains unclear [17]. In this context, the Ago isoforms revealed in this study represent an important strategy of host immune system to fight against virus invasion. As demonstrated in the present study, the Ago1A and Ago1B isoforms containing Ago1 fragment 2 provide the molecular basis for the shrimp antiviral defense. To our knowledge, our study was the first report on the roles of Ago isoforms that might be generated by alternative splicing from a single gene in host immunity against virus infection in invertebrates. Invertebrates might have evolved alternative splicing strategies to generate functionally different isoforms to fine-tune the host antiviral responses. In our study, Ago1A and Ago1B were shown to be involved in host immune responses against WSSV. It was revealed that the knockdown of Ago1B by a low concentration of siRNA-Ago1B significantly increased viral loads after virus challenge, suggesting that Ago1B was involved in the host defense against virusinfection. However, the silencing of Ago1B by siRNA-Ago1B at the high concentration resulted in up-regulation of Ago1A and the simultaneous up-regulation of Ago1A could compensate for the loss of Ago1B in the shrimp defense against WSSV infection. Furthermore, knockdown of Ago1A by siRNA-Ago1A at the high concentration led to a significant increase in WSSV copies, although the Ago1B mRNA levels were also up-regulated, suggesting that the up-regulation of Ago1B could not compensate for the depletion of Ago1A in shrimp antiviral immunity. Therefore, it could be inferred that the Ago1 isoforms (Ago1A and Ago1B) might be involved in different pathways to control WSSV replication in shrimp. The mechanism for the compensatory regulation of different Ago isoforms in the host antiviral immunity warranted further investigation. Overall, our study described the presence of three isoforms of the Ago1 protein in shrimp (M. japonicus) and investigated the roles of the different isoforms in antiviral shrimp response upon WSSV challenge. Silencing Ago 1A or Ago 1B significantly increased virus load compared to control shrimp (WSSV challenged only), indicating that Ago1A and Ago1B might play important roles in the host defense against virus infection. In contrast, silencing Ago 1C did not affect virus load, indicating that this isoform has no significant antiviral role. This study provided new insights into understanding the role of Ago 1 protein in antiviral response in invertebrates.Supporting InformationTable S1 Primers, probes and siRNAs used in this study.(DOC)Author ContributionsCon.