And SkinTo assess the pattern of hair follicle induction, we used

And SkinTo assess the pattern of hair follicle induction, we used a BMP4lacZ reporter line [24] and we assayed for ?galactosidase activity by X-gal staining as described previously [25]. Briefly, males that were compound heterozygous for the Fatp4 mutation and for BMP4-lacZ, were mated to females heterozygous for the Fatp4 mutation. JSI-124 site embryos were genotyped by PCR using one pair of primers to amplify the wild type allele (Ex8 (S), 59-CCACTGAATG CAACTGTAGCC-39 and Ex9(WT,AS), 59TCCATTCCCTCCTGGGCAGACCT-39 and a different antisense primer (Ex9, pigskin AS, 59-TCCATTCCCTCCTGGGCAGACCA-39 to assay for the mutant allele. Amplification bands were 360 bp. Mouse embryos or peeled skin were harvested from timed pregnancies and fixed in 2 paraformaldehyde plus 0.2 glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.3) at 4uC for 1 hour. Embryos or skin were rinsed three times (30 minute each) in washing solution containing 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.3), 2 mM MgCl2, 0.01 sodium deoxycholate, and 0.02 NP-40. Embryos were then stained at 4uC for 12 hours in X-gal staining solution (washing solution plus 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide, 5 mM potassium ferricyanide, and 1 mg/mL X-gal). Stained embryos or skin were rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) and stored in 70 ethanol. After staining, embryos were photographed using a 35 mm Nikon digital camera and images were processed with Adobe Photoshop. All of blue hair follicles in the lateral body (1 mm x 1 mm area) of E14.5 embryos were counted (at least three embryos in each genotype). A strongstained blue dot with an unstained core and a distinctive ring shape from the skin of E16.5 embryos was counted as primary hair follicles (PHFs) while other smaller stained blue dots were counted as secondary hair follicles (SHFs). Statistical significance (p values) was computed by using Student’s t test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Image J software was used to count hair follicles [26].SNP Mapping of the Pigskin MutationThe pigskin mutation arose on an FVB MedChemExpress C.I. 19140 background. In order to map the mutation, we mated pigskin carrier males to C57BL/6J partners. The F1 offsprings were used for test matings to identify mice that carried the pigskin mutation. Carriers were mated to each other, and the F2 offspring were again mated to identify carriers of the pigskin mutation. F2 carriers and their mutant offspring were used for SNP analysis 18325633 [19]. We analyzed genomic DNA from four carrier parents, and nine affected newborns (Fig. 4) as well as the parental FVB and C57 lines. SNP mapping identified a candidate region of the genome centered around rs13459062, which is located near 30 Mb on mouse chromosome 2. Since Fatp4 (Slc27a4) maps at 29.5 Mb on chromosome 2, it lies within the critical region of the genome. Mouse Fatp4 and human FATP4 encode homologous proteins. Recent studies have identified mutations in FATP4 in human patients with IPS [11,28?1] and the mutations found so far are point mutations (summarized in Figure 5A). In order to look for defects in the Fatp4 coding sequences in the pigskin mutants, segments of the mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from newborn mutant and wild-type skin (see Materials and Methods). Using an exon 4 sense primer and an antisense primer from exon 9, wild-type skin gave an amplification band, while the mutant skin did not (data not shown). Using a senseResults New Mouse Mutant with Autosomal Recessive Congenital IchthyosisWithin a breeding colo.And SkinTo assess the pattern of hair follicle induction, we used a BMP4lacZ reporter line [24] and we assayed for ?galactosidase activity by X-gal staining as described previously [25]. Briefly, males that were compound heterozygous for the Fatp4 mutation and for BMP4-lacZ, were mated to females heterozygous for the Fatp4 mutation. Embryos were genotyped by PCR using one pair of primers to amplify the wild type allele (Ex8 (S), 59-CCACTGAATG CAACTGTAGCC-39 and Ex9(WT,AS), 59TCCATTCCCTCCTGGGCAGACCT-39 and a different antisense primer (Ex9, pigskin AS, 59-TCCATTCCCTCCTGGGCAGACCA-39 to assay for the mutant allele. Amplification bands were 360 bp. Mouse embryos or peeled skin were harvested from timed pregnancies and fixed in 2 paraformaldehyde plus 0.2 glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.3) at 4uC for 1 hour. Embryos or skin were rinsed three times (30 minute each) in washing solution containing 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.3), 2 mM MgCl2, 0.01 sodium deoxycholate, and 0.02 NP-40. Embryos were then stained at 4uC for 12 hours in X-gal staining solution (washing solution plus 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide, 5 mM potassium ferricyanide, and 1 mg/mL X-gal). Stained embryos or skin were rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) and stored in 70 ethanol. After staining, embryos were photographed using a 35 mm Nikon digital camera and images were processed with Adobe Photoshop. All of blue hair follicles in the lateral body (1 mm x 1 mm area) of E14.5 embryos were counted (at least three embryos in each genotype). A strongstained blue dot with an unstained core and a distinctive ring shape from the skin of E16.5 embryos was counted as primary hair follicles (PHFs) while other smaller stained blue dots were counted as secondary hair follicles (SHFs). Statistical significance (p values) was computed by using Student’s t test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Image J software was used to count hair follicles [26].SNP Mapping of the Pigskin MutationThe pigskin mutation arose on an FVB background. In order to map the mutation, we mated pigskin carrier males to C57BL/6J partners. The F1 offsprings were used for test matings to identify mice that carried the pigskin mutation. Carriers were mated to each other, and the F2 offspring were again mated to identify carriers of the pigskin mutation. F2 carriers and their mutant offspring were used for SNP analysis 18325633 [19]. We analyzed genomic DNA from four carrier parents, and nine affected newborns (Fig. 4) as well as the parental FVB and C57 lines. SNP mapping identified a candidate region of the genome centered around rs13459062, which is located near 30 Mb on mouse chromosome 2. Since Fatp4 (Slc27a4) maps at 29.5 Mb on chromosome 2, it lies within the critical region of the genome. Mouse Fatp4 and human FATP4 encode homologous proteins. Recent studies have identified mutations in FATP4 in human patients with IPS [11,28?1] and the mutations found so far are point mutations (summarized in Figure 5A). In order to look for defects in the Fatp4 coding sequences in the pigskin mutants, segments of the mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from newborn mutant and wild-type skin (see Materials and Methods). Using an exon 4 sense primer and an antisense primer from exon 9, wild-type skin gave an amplification band, while the mutant skin did not (data not shown). Using a senseResults New Mouse Mutant with Autosomal Recessive Congenital IchthyosisWithin a breeding colo.