Iduals’ susceptibility to gastric cancer. To date, several molecular epidemiological studies

Iduals’ susceptibility to gastric cancer. To date, several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the association between the TNFA 308G.A polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. However, the results from these studies remain inconclusive. There are two published meta-analyses on the associations between the TNFA 308G.A and gastric cancer risk that have 64849-39-4 site identified this polymorphism as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Caucasian populations but not in Asian populations [20,21]. When reviewed the two meta-analyses, we found only 3 studies with a total of 513 cases and 714 controls and 5 studies with a total of 833 cases and 1375 controls in Chinese populations were included in the metaanalyses of Zhang et al. [20] and Gorouhi et al. [21], respectively (Table 5). The number of studies and the sample size of these studies may be too limited to generate a stable result. Of these studies, only Lu et al. found a significant association between TNFA -308GA genotype and increased risk of gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.81, 95 CI = 1.04?.14). Our study further identify the TNFA -308G.A polymorphism as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Chinese population, which may be of value in evaluating the role of TNF- a in gastric carcinogenesis. As get DprE1-IN-2 indicated by Power and Sample Size Calculation software, our study had a 96 power to detect an OR of 1.50 or greater and a minimal OR of 0.62 withan exposure frequency of 9 at the current sample size (1686 cases and 1895 controls), which suggests that the sample size of our study is efficient. In addition, we found that the TNFA -308G.A polymorphism was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among subgroups of older subjects (age.65 years) rather than younger subjects. This observation is well supported by a large body of studies, which link weak immune system with ageing [26,27]. The immune system of aged individuals undergoes alterations that may account for an increased susceptibility 1676428 to malignancies [26]. It has been proposed that high expression of TNF- a might be involved in tumor growth and spread through influencing tissue remodeling and stromal development [28,29]. In our study, we also 24272870 found the Table 5. Comparison of the sample size of the studies conducted in Chinese populations.Meta-analysis 2{ Case 59 250 204 513 Control 264 300 210StudiesMeta-analysis 1* Case Control 264 300 210 164 437Our study Case 1686 1686 Control 1895Li et al. [15] Lu et al. [16] Wu et al. [17] Fei et al. [18]59 250 204Guo et al. 264 [19] Our study Total*The mete-analysis of Gorouhi et al [21]. The mete-analysis of Zhang et al [20]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050856.t{TNFA -308G.A Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer RiskTNFA -308G.A polymorphism was associated with clinical aggressiveness such as advanced tumor stage and distant metastasis. Similar observation has also been reported in other study [30]. If confirmed by additional studies, this polymorphism might help to accurately predict the clinical course of gastric cancer. However, these results should be interpreted with cautious because there is possibility that the associations with poor prognosis are due to a late stage at diagnosis. When interpreting our results, some other limitations should also be concerned. First, since our study was hospital-based design, the possibility of selection bias of subjects that were associated with a particular genotype might exist. However, the genotype distributions in our controls were similar to di.Iduals’ susceptibility to gastric cancer. To date, several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the association between the TNFA 308G.A polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. However, the results from these studies remain inconclusive. There are two published meta-analyses on the associations between the TNFA 308G.A and gastric cancer risk that have identified this polymorphism as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Caucasian populations but not in Asian populations [20,21]. When reviewed the two meta-analyses, we found only 3 studies with a total of 513 cases and 714 controls and 5 studies with a total of 833 cases and 1375 controls in Chinese populations were included in the metaanalyses of Zhang et al. [20] and Gorouhi et al. [21], respectively (Table 5). The number of studies and the sample size of these studies may be too limited to generate a stable result. Of these studies, only Lu et al. found a significant association between TNFA -308GA genotype and increased risk of gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.81, 95 CI = 1.04?.14). Our study further identify the TNFA -308G.A polymorphism as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Chinese population, which may be of value in evaluating the role of TNF- a in gastric carcinogenesis. As indicated by Power and Sample Size Calculation software, our study had a 96 power to detect an OR of 1.50 or greater and a minimal OR of 0.62 withan exposure frequency of 9 at the current sample size (1686 cases and 1895 controls), which suggests that the sample size of our study is efficient. In addition, we found that the TNFA -308G.A polymorphism was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among subgroups of older subjects (age.65 years) rather than younger subjects. This observation is well supported by a large body of studies, which link weak immune system with ageing [26,27]. The immune system of aged individuals undergoes alterations that may account for an increased susceptibility 1676428 to malignancies [26]. It has been proposed that high expression of TNF- a might be involved in tumor growth and spread through influencing tissue remodeling and stromal development [28,29]. In our study, we also 24272870 found the Table 5. Comparison of the sample size of the studies conducted in Chinese populations.Meta-analysis 2{ Case 59 250 204 513 Control 264 300 210StudiesMeta-analysis 1* Case Control 264 300 210 164 437Our study Case 1686 1686 Control 1895Li et al. [15] Lu et al. [16] Wu et al. [17] Fei et al. [18]59 250 204Guo et al. 264 [19] Our study Total*The mete-analysis of Gorouhi et al [21]. The mete-analysis of Zhang et al [20]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050856.t{TNFA -308G.A Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer RiskTNFA -308G.A polymorphism was associated with clinical aggressiveness such as advanced tumor stage and distant metastasis. Similar observation has also been reported in other study [30]. If confirmed by additional studies, this polymorphism might help to accurately predict the clinical course of gastric cancer. However, these results should be interpreted with cautious because there is possibility that the associations with poor prognosis are due to a late stage at diagnosis. When interpreting our results, some other limitations should also be concerned. First, since our study was hospital-based design, the possibility of selection bias of subjects that were associated with a particular genotype might exist. However, the genotype distributions in our controls were similar to di.