Ure 3. Innate immune responses against P. yoelii in LMP7-deficient mice.

Ure 3. Innate immune responses against P. yoelii in Epigenetic Reader Domain LMP7-deficient mice. (A) Splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells obtained from WT (upper panels) and LMP7-deficient mice (lower panels) 5 days after infection were analyzed for their expression of activation markers. Histograms show expression patterns of the indicated molecules in uninfected (shaded areas) and PyL-infected mice (bold lines). (B) Peritoneal macrophages from WT and LMP7-deficient mice were cultured with CFSE-labeled pRBCs prepared from WT mice for 1 hour at 1:10 ratio. After removing free RBCs by lysis with 0.83 NH4Cl, macrophages were stained with PE-conjugated anti-mouse CD11b antibody before flow cytometric analyses. Histograms represent CFSE intensity of gated CD11b+ macrophages. CFSE-positive cells were determined by fluorescence intensity of macrophages cultured with CFSE-free pRBCs (left panel). Numbers indicate percentage of CFSE-positive cells. Values in the bar graph represent mean 6 SD of three mice, and statistical significance was not observed. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059633.gMalaria Resistance in LMP7-Deficient MiceMalaria Resistance in LMP7-Deficient MiceFigure 4. Susceptibility of RBCs from LMP7-deficient mice infected with PyL to phagocytosis by macrophages. (A) Peritoneal macrophages obtained from WT mice were cultured with CFSE-labeled nRBCs and pRBCs prepared from WT or LMP7-deficient mice as in Fig. 3B. Phagocytosing macrophages were determined as in Fig. 3B. Values in the bar graph represent mean 6 SD of three mice, and statistical significance was evaluated by Student’s t-test. (B) Morphology of RBCs from uninfected mice (left panels), pRBCs containing late trophozoites and schizonts (center panels), and RBCs other than pRBCs (right panels) from WT (upper panels) or LMP7-deficient mice (lower panels) was examined by SEM. Arrowheads indicate deformed RBCs with small dimples. Scale bars = 10 mm. (C) Peritoneal macrophages obtained from WT mice were cultured with CFSE-labeled RBCs after removal of pRBCs prepared from WT or LMP7-deficient as in Fig. 3B except that the RBC to macrophage ratio was 100:1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059633.gfection with PyL altered the morphology of the RBCs. These deformations were equally observed in both WT and LMP7deficient mice. However inhibitor schizont-free RBCs, which were separated as the precipitant by Percoll gradient consisting of early trophozoites (rings) and uninfected RBCs, showed a distinct difference. RBCs from LMP7-deficient mice showed many small dimples, whereas such RBCs were rarely seen in WT mice. Quantifications based on SEM images revealed that the ratios of dimple-containing schizont-free RBCs in LMP7-deficient or WT mice were 25.3360.19 or 4.6662.40 , respectively (mean 6 SD from 2 mice, p = 0.05). This morphology was not an artifact during the purification of pRBCs, because deformed RBCs were not observed in RBCs from uninfected mice processed the same way as infected mice samples. Since schizont-free RBCs contained more deformed RBCs in LMP7-deficient mice compared with WT mice, we then analyzed phagocytosis of those RBCs by macrophages in vitro. As shown above, schizont-rich pRBCs from LMP7-deficient mice were phagocytosed at a greater rate than those from WT mice. Interestingly, more schizont-free RBCs from LMP7-deficient mice were phagocytosed (Fig. 4C). This remarkable difference did not reflect the proportion of ring-infected RBCs. After removal of schizont-rich pRBCs, RBC preparations from WT or LMP7d.Ure 3. Innate immune responses against P. yoelii in LMP7-deficient mice. (A) Splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells obtained from WT (upper panels) and LMP7-deficient mice (lower panels) 5 days after infection were analyzed for their expression of activation markers. Histograms show expression patterns of the indicated molecules in uninfected (shaded areas) and PyL-infected mice (bold lines). (B) Peritoneal macrophages from WT and LMP7-deficient mice were cultured with CFSE-labeled pRBCs prepared from WT mice for 1 hour at 1:10 ratio. After removing free RBCs by lysis with 0.83 NH4Cl, macrophages were stained with PE-conjugated anti-mouse CD11b antibody before flow cytometric analyses. Histograms represent CFSE intensity of gated CD11b+ macrophages. CFSE-positive cells were determined by fluorescence intensity of macrophages cultured with CFSE-free pRBCs (left panel). Numbers indicate percentage of CFSE-positive cells. Values in the bar graph represent mean 6 SD of three mice, and statistical significance was not observed. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059633.gMalaria Resistance in LMP7-Deficient MiceMalaria Resistance in LMP7-Deficient MiceFigure 4. Susceptibility of RBCs from LMP7-deficient mice infected with PyL to phagocytosis by macrophages. (A) Peritoneal macrophages obtained from WT mice were cultured with CFSE-labeled nRBCs and pRBCs prepared from WT or LMP7-deficient mice as in Fig. 3B. Phagocytosing macrophages were determined as in Fig. 3B. Values in the bar graph represent mean 6 SD of three mice, and statistical significance was evaluated by Student’s t-test. (B) Morphology of RBCs from uninfected mice (left panels), pRBCs containing late trophozoites and schizonts (center panels), and RBCs other than pRBCs (right panels) from WT (upper panels) or LMP7-deficient mice (lower panels) was examined by SEM. Arrowheads indicate deformed RBCs with small dimples. Scale bars = 10 mm. (C) Peritoneal macrophages obtained from WT mice were cultured with CFSE-labeled RBCs after removal of pRBCs prepared from WT or LMP7-deficient as in Fig. 3B except that the RBC to macrophage ratio was 100:1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059633.gfection with PyL altered the morphology of the RBCs. These deformations were equally observed in both WT and LMP7deficient mice. However schizont-free RBCs, which were separated as the precipitant by Percoll gradient consisting of early trophozoites (rings) and uninfected RBCs, showed a distinct difference. RBCs from LMP7-deficient mice showed many small dimples, whereas such RBCs were rarely seen in WT mice. Quantifications based on SEM images revealed that the ratios of dimple-containing schizont-free RBCs in LMP7-deficient or WT mice were 25.3360.19 or 4.6662.40 , respectively (mean 6 SD from 2 mice, p = 0.05). This morphology was not an artifact during the purification of pRBCs, because deformed RBCs were not observed in RBCs from uninfected mice processed the same way as infected mice samples. Since schizont-free RBCs contained more deformed RBCs in LMP7-deficient mice compared with WT mice, we then analyzed phagocytosis of those RBCs by macrophages in vitro. As shown above, schizont-rich pRBCs from LMP7-deficient mice were phagocytosed at a greater rate than those from WT mice. Interestingly, more schizont-free RBCs from LMP7-deficient mice were phagocytosed (Fig. 4C). This remarkable difference did not reflect the proportion of ring-infected RBCs. After removal of schizont-rich pRBCs, RBC preparations from WT or LMP7d.