Drugs on cognitive decline, the association between EGb761H and consumption

Drugs on 57773-63-4 site cognitive decline, the association between EGb761H and consumption of psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics, and its possible contribution to the results observed was also considered.Methods General study designThis was an exploratory retrospective analysis of longitudinal data collected prospectively over the twenty years of follow-up of the PAQUID cohort. The study population and methodology of the PAQUID cohort have been described in detail elsewhere [35]. Briefly, the study initially included a community based cohort of 3,777 elderly people, aged 65 and older, representative of Gironde and Dordogne, two areas in the southwest of France. The PAQUID Study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Bordeaux University Hospital. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered at home by trained psychologists at the time of inclusion and after 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17 and 20 years. Physical health was evaluated by self-reported diseases or symptoms (treated diabetes, a history of heart disease, stroke, or hypertension, and dyspnoea) and scales assessing functional status. Medication consumption was documented by self-report by participants at each visit. The questionnaire also included items about sociodemographic characteristics, objective and subjective physical health, functional assessment, depressive symptomatology, as well as the MMSE as an evaluation of global mental status [36]. In addition to the MMSE, two specific neuropsychological tests were proposed systematically at each visit. The multiple choice recognition form of the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) was used to measure visual memory (scores range from 0 to 15) [37]. The Isaacs Set Test (IST) assessed verbal fluency by measuring the ability to generate lists of words in four semantic categories (colours, animals, fruits and cities) in a 30-second interval [38]. After the interview, the psychologists completed a standardised ancillary questionnaire designed to assign the DSM-III-R criteria for dementia [39]. Individuals who met criteria for dementia, as well as those presenting a decline of at least three points on the MMSE since the previous visit, were seen by a senior neurologist. The neurologist confirmed the dementia criteria and ascertained the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease or the Hachinski score for vascular dementia [40,41]. Additional paraclinical examinations could be performed if appropriate. All available information was reviewed by a panel of senior neurologists.Study sampleAll 3777 participants of the PAQUID cohort were eligible for this analysis, with the exception of those with a diagnosis of dementia at the time of inclusion (n = 102) and those who reported taking both EGb761H and piracetam at any time of follow-up (n = 63). The 3612 eligible subjects were divided into three groups as follows: (1) subjects reporting use of EGb761H at any one of the ten assessment visits, (2) subjects reporting use of piracetam at any one of the ten assessment visits and (3) subjects not reporting use of either EGb761H or piracetam at any assessment visit.Statistical analysisBaseline (-)-Indolactam V characteristics between the three treatment groups were compared using x2 tests or analyses of variance as appropriate. The decline in score on the MMSE, IST and BVRT over the twenty year follow-up period was compared between the three treatment groups using linear mixed effect models [42]. This.Drugs on cognitive decline, the association between EGb761H and consumption of psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics, and its possible contribution to the results observed was also considered.Methods General study designThis was an exploratory retrospective analysis of longitudinal data collected prospectively over the twenty years of follow-up of the PAQUID cohort. The study population and methodology of the PAQUID cohort have been described in detail elsewhere [35]. Briefly, the study initially included a community based cohort of 3,777 elderly people, aged 65 and older, representative of Gironde and Dordogne, two areas in the southwest of France. The PAQUID Study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Bordeaux University Hospital. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered at home by trained psychologists at the time of inclusion and after 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17 and 20 years. Physical health was evaluated by self-reported diseases or symptoms (treated diabetes, a history of heart disease, stroke, or hypertension, and dyspnoea) and scales assessing functional status. Medication consumption was documented by self-report by participants at each visit. The questionnaire also included items about sociodemographic characteristics, objective and subjective physical health, functional assessment, depressive symptomatology, as well as the MMSE as an evaluation of global mental status [36]. In addition to the MMSE, two specific neuropsychological tests were proposed systematically at each visit. The multiple choice recognition form of the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) was used to measure visual memory (scores range from 0 to 15) [37]. The Isaacs Set Test (IST) assessed verbal fluency by measuring the ability to generate lists of words in four semantic categories (colours, animals, fruits and cities) in a 30-second interval [38]. After the interview, the psychologists completed a standardised ancillary questionnaire designed to assign the DSM-III-R criteria for dementia [39]. Individuals who met criteria for dementia, as well as those presenting a decline of at least three points on the MMSE since the previous visit, were seen by a senior neurologist. The neurologist confirmed the dementia criteria and ascertained the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer’s disease or the Hachinski score for vascular dementia [40,41]. Additional paraclinical examinations could be performed if appropriate. All available information was reviewed by a panel of senior neurologists.Study sampleAll 3777 participants of the PAQUID cohort were eligible for this analysis, with the exception of those with a diagnosis of dementia at the time of inclusion (n = 102) and those who reported taking both EGb761H and piracetam at any time of follow-up (n = 63). The 3612 eligible subjects were divided into three groups as follows: (1) subjects reporting use of EGb761H at any one of the ten assessment visits, (2) subjects reporting use of piracetam at any one of the ten assessment visits and (3) subjects not reporting use of either EGb761H or piracetam at any assessment visit.Statistical analysisBaseline characteristics between the three treatment groups were compared using x2 tests or analyses of variance as appropriate. The decline in score on the MMSE, IST and BVRT over the twenty year follow-up period was compared between the three treatment groups using linear mixed effect models [42]. This.