F the binary mixture) or to predict the formation of a

F the binary mixture) or to predict the formation of a new odor. However, this response was never chosen by any participant.patients. The comparison of these parameters between depressed patients and controls and between 69-25-0 manufacturer clinically improved patients and controls was carried out with Mann-Whitney test (unpaired test). The Chi-squared test was used to test for differences, between groups, in the proportions of subjects choosing all three responses concerning odor identification in the binary mixture: PHE, ISO and PHE+ISO. In the case, that this test showed the presence of a significant difference between groups for their responses, a chisquared test for each type of the response was carried out in order to know the type of difference between the three groups. The same tests were used also to analysis the odor identification score per odorant. In order to compare the hedonic responses of all 8 odorants for each group, the Friedman’s paired test (for both patients groups: 8 odors and 18 subjects; for controls’ group: 8 odors and 54 subjects) with Bonferroni correction (a* = a/k; where, a = 0.05 and k is the number of the comparisons performed) was used. The post-hoc Nemenyi procedure permitted two-by-two comparisons of the hedonic score of the different odorants. The same statistical tests were used for the three groups, to study the discrimination power of the three different intensity levels of 2-phenylethanol and isovaleric acid. For this case, the Friedman’s test was carried out on the 3 intensity levels and the 18 subjects for both patients groups and on the 3 intensity levels and the 54 subjects for controls’ group. The post-hoc Nemenyi procedure permitted twoby-two comparisons of the different intensity levels. All statistical analyses were performed at a = 5 . They were conducted using XLSTATH-Pro, release 5.2.Results Hedonic Aspect, Familiarity and Identification of Single OdorsThe three groups of subjects were able to discriminate the studied odorants according to their hedonic valence (depressed patients: Q = 43.23, p,0.001; clinically improved patients: Q = 63.27, p,0.001 and controls: Q = 237.22, p,0.001). Thus, controls classified the 8 odorants in 3 clusters; the depressives formed 2 clusters, while the clinically improved patients classified odorants according to their hedonic valence in 4 clusters (Table 2). Regarding the pleasant odorants, only one compound (benzaldehyde) was buy ITI 007 perceived as significantly less pleasant by depressed compared to clinically improved patients. This odorant was found as less pleasant by patients than by controls, only during the depressive episode. At 6 weeks, no significant difference remained between groups. Vanillin and (E)-cinnamaldehyde were evaluated as significantly less pleasant by depressed patients at V1 and V2, compared to healthy controls. The hedonic score of 2-phenylethanol was significantly lower for depressed patients at V1 compared to controls (Table 3A).Statistical AnalysisStatistical analyses were carried out with non-parametrical tests, because the Levene tests for the homogeneity of variances revealed unequal variance for the majority of the variables and the normal distribution of the data was not always validated (KolmogorovSmirnov test). The Wilcoxon signed test (paired test) was used for each stimulus to compare the pleasantness response, the familiarity level of odors, their intensity response as well as their identification score (over all odorants; the subjects’ identif.F the binary mixture) or to predict the formation of a new odor. However, this response was never chosen by any participant.patients. The comparison of these parameters between depressed patients and controls and between clinically improved patients and controls was carried out with Mann-Whitney test (unpaired test). The Chi-squared test was used to test for differences, between groups, in the proportions of subjects choosing all three responses concerning odor identification in the binary mixture: PHE, ISO and PHE+ISO. In the case, that this test showed the presence of a significant difference between groups for their responses, a chisquared test for each type of the response was carried out in order to know the type of difference between the three groups. The same tests were used also to analysis the odor identification score per odorant. In order to compare the hedonic responses of all 8 odorants for each group, the Friedman’s paired test (for both patients groups: 8 odors and 18 subjects; for controls’ group: 8 odors and 54 subjects) with Bonferroni correction (a* = a/k; where, a = 0.05 and k is the number of the comparisons performed) was used. The post-hoc Nemenyi procedure permitted two-by-two comparisons of the hedonic score of the different odorants. The same statistical tests were used for the three groups, to study the discrimination power of the three different intensity levels of 2-phenylethanol and isovaleric acid. For this case, the Friedman’s test was carried out on the 3 intensity levels and the 18 subjects for both patients groups and on the 3 intensity levels and the 54 subjects for controls’ group. The post-hoc Nemenyi procedure permitted twoby-two comparisons of the different intensity levels. All statistical analyses were performed at a = 5 . They were conducted using XLSTATH-Pro, release 5.2.Results Hedonic Aspect, Familiarity and Identification of Single OdorsThe three groups of subjects were able to discriminate the studied odorants according to their hedonic valence (depressed patients: Q = 43.23, p,0.001; clinically improved patients: Q = 63.27, p,0.001 and controls: Q = 237.22, p,0.001). Thus, controls classified the 8 odorants in 3 clusters; the depressives formed 2 clusters, while the clinically improved patients classified odorants according to their hedonic valence in 4 clusters (Table 2). Regarding the pleasant odorants, only one compound (benzaldehyde) was perceived as significantly less pleasant by depressed compared to clinically improved patients. This odorant was found as less pleasant by patients than by controls, only during the depressive episode. At 6 weeks, no significant difference remained between groups. Vanillin and (E)-cinnamaldehyde were evaluated as significantly less pleasant by depressed patients at V1 and V2, compared to healthy controls. The hedonic score of 2-phenylethanol was significantly lower for depressed patients at V1 compared to controls (Table 3A).Statistical AnalysisStatistical analyses were carried out with non-parametrical tests, because the Levene tests for the homogeneity of variances revealed unequal variance for the majority of the variables and the normal distribution of the data was not always validated (KolmogorovSmirnov test). The Wilcoxon signed test (paired test) was used for each stimulus to compare the pleasantness response, the familiarity level of odors, their intensity response as well as their identification score (over all odorants; the subjects’ identif.