Re, lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring loss of PNA fluorescence.

Re, lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring loss of PNA fluorescence. Briefly, treated cells were incubated with 10 mM PNA (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, UK) at 37uC for 30 minutes in the dark. The media was then removed and cells washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Afterwards, cells were scraped into 2 ml PBS using a rubber policeman. The suspension was then added to a fluorescence cuvette and measured at 312-nm excitation and 455-nm emission. A blank (unlabelled cells) was measured and subtracted from all readings. This method has been validated by treating the RPE cultures with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. A dose-dependent loss of fluorescence could be observed (data not shown). All experiments were run in MedChemExpress TA01 triplicate in RPE cultures from three donors and repeated three times.Senescence-associated ?galactosidase activityThe proportion of RPE cells positive for the senescenceassociated ?galactosidase (SA-?Gal) activity was determined as described by Dimri et al. [37]. Briefly, treated RPE cells were washed twice with PBS and fixed with 2 formaldehyde and 0.2 glutaraldehyde in PBS at pH 6.0 at room temperature (RT) for 4 minutes. Cells were then washed twice with PBS and incubated under light protection for 8 hours at 37uC with fresh SA-?Gal staining solution (1 mg/ml 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-?D-galactopyranoside (X-gal), 40 mM citric acid/sodium phosphate, pH 6.0, 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide, 5 mM potassium ferricyEffects of Smoke in RPEanide, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM MgCl2 diluted in PBS). Cells were then examined for the development of blue color and photographed at low magnification (2006) using a light microscope. All experiments were run in triplicate in RPE cultures from three donors and repeated three times.were run in triplicate with three different RPE cultures from three donors.Analysis of fibronectin and laminin secretion into culture mediaRelease of fibronectin and laminin into culture media of RPE cells was measured using corresponding QuantiMatrixTM Human Fibronektin ELISA kits (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) and QuantiMatrixTM Human Laminin ELISA kits (Millipore) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All experiments were run in triplicate with three different RPE cultures from three donors.RNA isolation and real-time PCRTotal RNA was isolated from 10 mm petri dishes by the guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction method (Stratagene, Heidelberg, BTZ-043 web Germany). Structural integrity of the RNA samples was confirmed by electrophoresis in 1 Trisacetate-EDTA (TAE)-agarose gels. Yield and purity were determined photometrically. After RNA isolation, mRNA was transcribed to cDNA via reverse transcriptase. This cDNA was then used for specific real-time PCR. Quantification of human mRNA was performed with specific primers during 40 cycles with a LightCycler Instrument (LightCycler System, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The primers selected were apolipoprotein J (Apo J) forward primer 59- ggacatccacttccacagc -39 and reverse primer 59- ggtcatcgtcgccttctc -39; connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) forward primer 59- ctgcaggctagagaagcagag -39 and reverse primer 59- gatgcactttttgcccttct -39; fibronectin forward primer 59-ctggccgaaaatacattgtaaa-39 and reverse primer 59ccacagtcgggtcaggag-39; and GAPDH forward primer 59-agccacatcgctcagacac-39 and reverse primer 59-gcccaatacgaccaaatcc-39. Primers and probes were found with the programme ProbeFinder Version: 2.04. The standard c.Re, lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring loss of PNA fluorescence. Briefly, treated cells were incubated with 10 mM PNA (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, UK) at 37uC for 30 minutes in the dark. The media was then removed and cells washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Afterwards, cells were scraped into 2 ml PBS using a rubber policeman. The suspension was then added to a fluorescence cuvette and measured at 312-nm excitation and 455-nm emission. A blank (unlabelled cells) was measured and subtracted from all readings. This method has been validated by treating the RPE cultures with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. A dose-dependent loss of fluorescence could be observed (data not shown). All experiments were run in triplicate in RPE cultures from three donors and repeated three times.Senescence-associated ?galactosidase activityThe proportion of RPE cells positive for the senescenceassociated ?galactosidase (SA-?Gal) activity was determined as described by Dimri et al. [37]. Briefly, treated RPE cells were washed twice with PBS and fixed with 2 formaldehyde and 0.2 glutaraldehyde in PBS at pH 6.0 at room temperature (RT) for 4 minutes. Cells were then washed twice with PBS and incubated under light protection for 8 hours at 37uC with fresh SA-?Gal staining solution (1 mg/ml 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-?D-galactopyranoside (X-gal), 40 mM citric acid/sodium phosphate, pH 6.0, 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide, 5 mM potassium ferricyEffects of Smoke in RPEanide, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM MgCl2 diluted in PBS). Cells were then examined for the development of blue color and photographed at low magnification (2006) using a light microscope. All experiments were run in triplicate in RPE cultures from three donors and repeated three times.were run in triplicate with three different RPE cultures from three donors.Analysis of fibronectin and laminin secretion into culture mediaRelease of fibronectin and laminin into culture media of RPE cells was measured using corresponding QuantiMatrixTM Human Fibronektin ELISA kits (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) and QuantiMatrixTM Human Laminin ELISA kits (Millipore) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All experiments were run in triplicate with three different RPE cultures from three donors.RNA isolation and real-time PCRTotal RNA was isolated from 10 mm petri dishes by the guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction method (Stratagene, Heidelberg, Germany). Structural integrity of the RNA samples was confirmed by electrophoresis in 1 Trisacetate-EDTA (TAE)-agarose gels. Yield and purity were determined photometrically. After RNA isolation, mRNA was transcribed to cDNA via reverse transcriptase. This cDNA was then used for specific real-time PCR. Quantification of human mRNA was performed with specific primers during 40 cycles with a LightCycler Instrument (LightCycler System, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The primers selected were apolipoprotein J (Apo J) forward primer 59- ggacatccacttccacagc -39 and reverse primer 59- ggtcatcgtcgccttctc -39; connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) forward primer 59- ctgcaggctagagaagcagag -39 and reverse primer 59- gatgcactttttgcccttct -39; fibronectin forward primer 59-ctggccgaaaatacattgtaaa-39 and reverse primer 59ccacagtcgggtcaggag-39; and GAPDH forward primer 59-agccacatcgctcagacac-39 and reverse primer 59-gcccaatacgaccaaatcc-39. Primers and probes were found with the programme ProbeFinder Version: 2.04. The standard c.