S, dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport system, and consequently, cardiac

S, dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport system, and consequently, cardiac damage. Results from this study will help us elucidate the role played by TNF in inducing oxidative stress by examining the superoxide producing machinery in the heart, and its contribution to cardiac dysfunction. In this context, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether an AT-1R blocker (losartan) could attenuate the functional and structural changes that occur in cardiac mitochondria upon TNF induction. Identifying the links between TNF, ANGII, and oxidative stress at the mitochondrial level in contributing to cardiac damage may lead to a better understanding of the progression of cardiovascular disease and, ultimately, lead to new and effective treatment strategies.procedure for 3 days prior to each experiment. Blood pressure values were averaged from at least six consecutive cycles per day obtained from each rat.EchocardiographyCardiac function was measured as described previously [11,20,21]. Rats were anesthetized with isoflurane to facilitate positioning for echocardiographic studies. LV end diastolic K162 chemical information volume (LVEDV), end systolic volume (LVESV), intraventricular wall thickness and posterior wall thickness were measured in systole and diastole to determine the presence of hypertrophy.Electron Spin Resonance StudiesTotal LV ROS and superoxide production rates were measured using EPR as described previously [12,22]. Three different spin probes were used for EPR studies. 25837696 1-Hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine (CMH) was used to measure tissue ROS and superoxide O2N2, 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH) was used for measurement of tissue peroxynitrite (OONO2); and 1-hydroxy-4-phosphono-oxy2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine (PPH) was used for mitochondrial O2N2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) studies [23]. Briefly, pieces of LV tissues were incubated at 37uC with CMH (200 mM) for 30 min for ROS measurement; PEG-SOD (50 U/ml) for 30 min, then CMH (200 mM) for an additional 30 min for O2N2 measurement; or CPH (500 mM) for 30 min for OONO2 measurement. Aliquots of incubated probe media were then taken in 50-ml disposable glass capillary tubes (Noxygen Science Transfer and Diagnostics) for determination of LV ROS, O2N2, or OONO2 production. All EPR measurements were performed using an EMX ESR eScan BenchTop spectrometer and superhigh quality factor get LED 209 microwave cavity (Bruker Company, Germany).Materials and Methods Ethics StatementAll experimental procedures were in compliance with all applicable principles set forth in the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Publication No. 85-23, revised 1996). This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine (protocol approval number 09-008).RNA Isolation and Real-Time RT-PCRTotal RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and real-time RT-PCR were performed as previously described [11]. Rat primer sequences appear in Table 1.Experimental ProtocolStudies were conducted using adult male Sprague awley rats (325?50 g; n = 8 per group) obtained from Harlan (Indianapolis, IN, USA). Animals were housed in temperature-(2362uC) and light-controlled (12 h light/dark cycle) animal quarters; standard rat chow and water were provided ad libitum. Rats were divided into 3 groups. One group of rats received TNF at a dose of 30 mg/ kg, ip, the second group received norma.S, dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport system, and consequently, cardiac damage. Results from this study will help us elucidate the role played by TNF in inducing oxidative stress by examining the superoxide producing machinery in the heart, and its contribution to cardiac dysfunction. In this context, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether an AT-1R blocker (losartan) could attenuate the functional and structural changes that occur in cardiac mitochondria upon TNF induction. Identifying the links between TNF, ANGII, and oxidative stress at the mitochondrial level in contributing to cardiac damage may lead to a better understanding of the progression of cardiovascular disease and, ultimately, lead to new and effective treatment strategies.procedure for 3 days prior to each experiment. Blood pressure values were averaged from at least six consecutive cycles per day obtained from each rat.EchocardiographyCardiac function was measured as described previously [11,20,21]. Rats were anesthetized with isoflurane to facilitate positioning for echocardiographic studies. LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV), end systolic volume (LVESV), intraventricular wall thickness and posterior wall thickness were measured in systole and diastole to determine the presence of hypertrophy.Electron Spin Resonance StudiesTotal LV ROS and superoxide production rates were measured using EPR as described previously [12,22]. Three different spin probes were used for EPR studies. 25837696 1-Hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine (CMH) was used to measure tissue ROS and superoxide O2N2, 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH) was used for measurement of tissue peroxynitrite (OONO2); and 1-hydroxy-4-phosphono-oxy2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine (PPH) was used for mitochondrial O2N2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) studies [23]. Briefly, pieces of LV tissues were incubated at 37uC with CMH (200 mM) for 30 min for ROS measurement; PEG-SOD (50 U/ml) for 30 min, then CMH (200 mM) for an additional 30 min for O2N2 measurement; or CPH (500 mM) for 30 min for OONO2 measurement. Aliquots of incubated probe media were then taken in 50-ml disposable glass capillary tubes (Noxygen Science Transfer and Diagnostics) for determination of LV ROS, O2N2, or OONO2 production. All EPR measurements were performed using an EMX ESR eScan BenchTop spectrometer and superhigh quality factor microwave cavity (Bruker Company, Germany).Materials and Methods Ethics StatementAll experimental procedures were in compliance with all applicable principles set forth in the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Publication No. 85-23, revised 1996). This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine (protocol approval number 09-008).RNA Isolation and Real-Time RT-PCRTotal RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and real-time RT-PCR were performed as previously described [11]. Rat primer sequences appear in Table 1.Experimental ProtocolStudies were conducted using adult male Sprague awley rats (325?50 g; n = 8 per group) obtained from Harlan (Indianapolis, IN, USA). Animals were housed in temperature-(2362uC) and light-controlled (12 h light/dark cycle) animal quarters; standard rat chow and water were provided ad libitum. Rats were divided into 3 groups. One group of rats received TNF at a dose of 30 mg/ kg, ip, the second group received norma.