Ues. We also thank the two anonymous referees for their constructive

Ues. We also thank the two anonymous referees for their constructive comments.CASP8 Polymorphisms May Not Associated with CRCAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: MSX XYL YGY. Performed the experiments: MSX LC YSD YP. Analyzed the data: MSX DFZ YGY.Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LC WLL YSD YP DFZ YW JL XYL YGY. Wrote the paper: MSX YGY.
The chicken oviduct is well known as a model for research on hormone action, including effects of estrogen and progesterone [1]. Especially, estrogen is known as the hormone responsible for growth of the yolk and follicle, and the process of calcium metabolism for formation of the egg shell and the process of oviposition or laying of the egg [1]. In addition, estrogen has also a crucial role in the process of the synthesis of egg white proteins in the oviduct [2]. Furthermore, formation of the tubular glands and differentiation of the epithelial cells including goblet and ciliated cells in the chicken oviduct are induced by estrogen [3]. WNT4 is a secretory signaling protein concerned with multiple processes in organ MedChemExpress Iloprost purchase KDM5A-IN-1 development including formation of kidney, mammary gland and adrenal gland, as well as sexual development in mammals [4]. Of particular note, WNT4 is a key player in the development and differentiation of the female reproductive system. In mice, the Wnt4 signaling pathway participates in folliculogenesis, luteogenesis and steroidogenesis of granulosa cells and in theregulatory processes of stromal cell proliferation and differentiation for survival and development of embryos within the uterine lumen [5]. Interestingly, several genes involved in the WNT signal pathway(s) are regulated by estrogen. In fact, the WNT4-FZD2 signaling pathway is activated by binding of estrogen to estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in the uterus [6] and in somatotrophs that produce growth hormone in the anterior pituitary gland of rodents [4]. Furthermore, over-expression of WNT4 leads to the development of malignant tumors. Indeed, the elevated expression of WNT4 is frequently observed in many breast cancer patients which implies that it’s aberrant expression leads to abnormal cell proliferation and breast cancer in women [7]. There is little known about the expression or function of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: 1) reveal cell-specific expression patterns of WNT4 in the chicken oviduct during the reproductive cycle; 2) determine whether estrogen regulates expression of WNT4 during development of the chick oviduct; 3) determineChicken WNT4 in the Female Reproductive Tractswhether WNT4 expression is mediated through post-transcriptional activity of specific microRNAs and 4) compare the expression pattern of WNT4 between normal and cancerous ovaries. Results of the present study provide novel insights into the WNT4 gene of chickens with respect to cell-specific expression and hormonal regulation of its expression during oviduct development, the laying cycle and development of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.Results Expression and localization of WNT4 in the chicken oviductAnatomically, the chicken oviduct consists of four segments: the infundibulum (site of fertilization), magnum (production of components of egg-white), isthmus (formation of the shell membrane) and shell gland (formation of the egg shell). Results of RT-PCR analysis indicated a high level of WNT4 mRNA expression in the isthmus and the shell.Ues. We also thank the two anonymous referees for their constructive comments.CASP8 Polymorphisms May Not Associated with CRCAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: MSX XYL YGY. Performed the experiments: MSX LC YSD YP. Analyzed the data: MSX DFZ YGY.Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LC WLL YSD YP DFZ YW JL XYL YGY. Wrote the paper: MSX YGY.
The chicken oviduct is well known as a model for research on hormone action, including effects of estrogen and progesterone [1]. Especially, estrogen is known as the hormone responsible for growth of the yolk and follicle, and the process of calcium metabolism for formation of the egg shell and the process of oviposition or laying of the egg [1]. In addition, estrogen has also a crucial role in the process of the synthesis of egg white proteins in the oviduct [2]. Furthermore, formation of the tubular glands and differentiation of the epithelial cells including goblet and ciliated cells in the chicken oviduct are induced by estrogen [3]. WNT4 is a secretory signaling protein concerned with multiple processes in organ development including formation of kidney, mammary gland and adrenal gland, as well as sexual development in mammals [4]. Of particular note, WNT4 is a key player in the development and differentiation of the female reproductive system. In mice, the Wnt4 signaling pathway participates in folliculogenesis, luteogenesis and steroidogenesis of granulosa cells and in theregulatory processes of stromal cell proliferation and differentiation for survival and development of embryos within the uterine lumen [5]. Interestingly, several genes involved in the WNT signal pathway(s) are regulated by estrogen. In fact, the WNT4-FZD2 signaling pathway is activated by binding of estrogen to estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in the uterus [6] and in somatotrophs that produce growth hormone in the anterior pituitary gland of rodents [4]. Furthermore, over-expression of WNT4 leads to the development of malignant tumors. Indeed, the elevated expression of WNT4 is frequently observed in many breast cancer patients which implies that it’s aberrant expression leads to abnormal cell proliferation and breast cancer in women [7]. There is little known about the expression or function of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: 1) reveal cell-specific expression patterns of WNT4 in the chicken oviduct during the reproductive cycle; 2) determine whether estrogen regulates expression of WNT4 during development of the chick oviduct; 3) determineChicken WNT4 in the Female Reproductive Tractswhether WNT4 expression is mediated through post-transcriptional activity of specific microRNAs and 4) compare the expression pattern of WNT4 between normal and cancerous ovaries. Results of the present study provide novel insights into the WNT4 gene of chickens with respect to cell-specific expression and hormonal regulation of its expression during oviduct development, the laying cycle and development of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.Results Expression and localization of WNT4 in the chicken oviductAnatomically, the chicken oviduct consists of four segments: the infundibulum (site of fertilization), magnum (production of components of egg-white), isthmus (formation of the shell membrane) and shell gland (formation of the egg shell). Results of RT-PCR analysis indicated a high level of WNT4 mRNA expression in the isthmus and the shell.