Test. The same experimenter handled and tested animals in the experiment

Test. The same experimenter handled and tested animals in the experiment and was blinded to the genotype of each animal. Mechanical sensitivity was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold using calibrated von Frey filaments as previously described, with slight modifications [29,30]. Mice were acclimatized on a metal mesh floor in small cylinders for 1 h. Mechanical sensitivity was evaluated using a set of seven calibrated von Frey filaments (0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.07, 0.16, 0.4, and 1.0 g) that were applied to the plantar surface of the hindpaw until the filament bent slightly for a few seconds. The first stimulus was always the 0.16 g filament. When a mouse demonstrated a positive response such as flicking and lifting, the next lower-weight filament was applied. When a mouse demonstrated a negative response (i.e., no movement) the next higherweight filament was applied. After the first change in response, four 16574785 BIBS39 manufacturer additional responses were observed, and the 50 paw withdrawal threshold was calculated [29,31].Generation of BM Chimeric MiceHomozygous TRPM22/2male mice were crossed with GFPtransgenic female mice to produce GFP+ TRPM2+/2mice. GFP+ TRPM2+/+ (WT) mice and GFP+ TRPM22/2 (TRPM2-KO) mice were obtained by the hetero-mating of GFP+ TRPM2+/ 2 female and male mice to obtain suitable BM donor mice. BM transplantation was carried out as previously reported [26] with slight modifications. BM recipients were male 6-week-old C57BL/ 6J or TRPM2-KO mice. Recipient mice were lethally irradiated with 10 Gy total body irradiation for 10 min. GFP+ WT or TRPM2-KO donor mice were euthanized by Oltipraz custom synthesis decapitation, their femurs were isolated, and both ends were cut and placed into a microtube. The femurs were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 min, and the pellet of GFP+ BM cells was suspended in sterileTRPM2 in Spinal Infiltration of Macrophage in PainFigure 1. Flow cytometry analysis of BM-derived cells in WT/TRPM2-KO BM chimeric mice. Representative histograms of GFP+ cells in WT mice (A; negative control), GFP-transgenic mice (B; positive control), TRPM2BM+/Rec+ mice (C), TRPM2BM?Rec+ mice (D), TRPM2BM+/Rec?mice (E), and TRPM2BM-/Rec?mice (F). In all examined chimeric mice, more than 90 of the BM-derived cells were GFP+. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066410.gTRPM2 in Spinal Infiltration of Macrophage in Painligation site. In each section of the spinal cord, a fluorescence image (3006200 mm) of contralateral and ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn was captured in the area. Iba1+ and GFP+ cells were counted in contralateral and ipsilateral regions of interest with Image J software (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD). Three to six mice were included in each group.Statistical AnalysisData are presented as the mean 6 SEM and were analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.0. Statistical analyses of the 50 withdrawal thresholds were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post hoc Dunn’s comparison test at each time point and each BM chimeric mouse group, respectively. The numbers of Iba1+ or GFP+ cells were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Tukey-Kramer comparison test. In all 23977191 cases, differences of p,0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results Neuropathic Pain in BM Chimeric miceTo determine whether TRPM2 expressed in peripheral immune cells contributes to neuropathic pain, irradiated WT or TRPM2-KO recipient mice were transplanted with either WT-or TRPM2-KO donor mouse-derived GFP+ BM c.Test. The same experimenter handled and tested animals in the experiment and was blinded to the genotype of each animal. Mechanical sensitivity was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold using calibrated von Frey filaments as previously described, with slight modifications [29,30]. Mice were acclimatized on a metal mesh floor in small cylinders for 1 h. Mechanical sensitivity was evaluated using a set of seven calibrated von Frey filaments (0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.07, 0.16, 0.4, and 1.0 g) that were applied to the plantar surface of the hindpaw until the filament bent slightly for a few seconds. The first stimulus was always the 0.16 g filament. When a mouse demonstrated a positive response such as flicking and lifting, the next lower-weight filament was applied. When a mouse demonstrated a negative response (i.e., no movement) the next higherweight filament was applied. After the first change in response, four 16574785 additional responses were observed, and the 50 paw withdrawal threshold was calculated [29,31].Generation of BM Chimeric MiceHomozygous TRPM22/2male mice were crossed with GFPtransgenic female mice to produce GFP+ TRPM2+/2mice. GFP+ TRPM2+/+ (WT) mice and GFP+ TRPM22/2 (TRPM2-KO) mice were obtained by the hetero-mating of GFP+ TRPM2+/ 2 female and male mice to obtain suitable BM donor mice. BM transplantation was carried out as previously reported [26] with slight modifications. BM recipients were male 6-week-old C57BL/ 6J or TRPM2-KO mice. Recipient mice were lethally irradiated with 10 Gy total body irradiation for 10 min. GFP+ WT or TRPM2-KO donor mice were euthanized by decapitation, their femurs were isolated, and both ends were cut and placed into a microtube. The femurs were centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 min, and the pellet of GFP+ BM cells was suspended in sterileTRPM2 in Spinal Infiltration of Macrophage in PainFigure 1. Flow cytometry analysis of BM-derived cells in WT/TRPM2-KO BM chimeric mice. Representative histograms of GFP+ cells in WT mice (A; negative control), GFP-transgenic mice (B; positive control), TRPM2BM+/Rec+ mice (C), TRPM2BM?Rec+ mice (D), TRPM2BM+/Rec?mice (E), and TRPM2BM-/Rec?mice (F). In all examined chimeric mice, more than 90 of the BM-derived cells were GFP+. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066410.gTRPM2 in Spinal Infiltration of Macrophage in Painligation site. In each section of the spinal cord, a fluorescence image (3006200 mm) of contralateral and ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn was captured in the area. Iba1+ and GFP+ cells were counted in contralateral and ipsilateral regions of interest with Image J software (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD). Three to six mice were included in each group.Statistical AnalysisData are presented as the mean 6 SEM and were analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.0. Statistical analyses of the 50 withdrawal thresholds were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post hoc Dunn’s comparison test at each time point and each BM chimeric mouse group, respectively. The numbers of Iba1+ or GFP+ cells were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Tukey-Kramer comparison test. In all 23977191 cases, differences of p,0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results Neuropathic Pain in BM Chimeric miceTo determine whether TRPM2 expressed in peripheral immune cells contributes to neuropathic pain, irradiated WT or TRPM2-KO recipient mice were transplanted with either WT-or TRPM2-KO donor mouse-derived GFP+ BM c.