Ted with reduced sciatic NCV and increased tdml. We observed a

Ted with reduced sciatic NCV and increased tdml. We observed a 1.3860.04 (p,0.001) fold reduction in sciatic NCV by 4 months of age in dbdb mice (As used for the catalytic characterization. S. oneidensis COG1058/PncC protein Figure 1A). 6-mo-old Sod12/2 mice also 10781694 demonstrated a 1.3660.07 (p,0.01) fold reduction in sciatic NCV (Figure 1B). The dbdb mice and Sod12/2 mice exhibited a 1.4160.04 fold (p,0.001) and 1.1260.02 fold (p,0.05) increase in tdml, respectively (Figure 1C D). Since demyelination is closely linked to reduced nerve conduction [2] and oxidative stress is associated with reduced sciatic NCV and increased tdml as shown in Figure 1A , we measured axon diameter, nerve fiber Madrasin chemical information diameter and myelin thickness in 5-mo-old dbm and dbdb mice, and 6 and 20 mo-old Sod12/2 mice in toluidine blue stained sciatic nerve thick sections. Dbdb mice exhibited reduced axon, nerve fiber diameter and reduced myelin thickness when compared to comparable sized axons from sections obtained from the sciatic notch in dbm mice (Figure 2 A B, marked by asterisks). Moreover, a significant reduction in axon diameter/area (p,0.05), fiber diameter/area (p,0.001), myelin thickness/area (p,0.001) and increase in Gratio (axon diameter/fiber diameter) (p,0.001, Figure 2C) was also observed in these sections. Reductions in axon diameter, fiber diameter and myelin thickness in dbdb mice are consistent with previous studies [2]. In comparison, the Sod12/2 mice exhibited reduced axon and fiber diameters compared to age-matched wildtype mice at 6 months of age (Figure 2D E), which was confirmed by quantification of axon diameter/area (p,0.001) and fiber diameter/area (p,0.001). The myelin area was reduced but the results did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.16) (Figure 2F). However, 20 month Sod12/2 mice showed reductions in myelin thickness/area and fiber diameter/area (Figure 2G H). Quantification of nerve morphology demonstrated a significant reduction in fiber diameter/area (p,0.001), and myelin thickness/area (p,0.001) with concomitant increase in G-ratio (p,0.001), by 20 months of age (Figure 2). These results strongly suggest that oxidative stress is closely associated with alterations in peripheral nerve myelin morphology and function.cytosolic fraction of both dbdb mice (1.760.2 fold, p,0.01, Figure 3A) and Sod12/2 mice (1.360.1 fold, p,0.05, Figure 3B). This intriguing observation led us to examine if the protein carbonylation level is also elevated in the detergent-soluble fraction as it has been often found that protein oxidation, including protein carbonylation induces protein aggregation [42,43,44]. Therefore, we measured protein carbonylation in the detergent-soluble protein fraction isolated from the sciatic nerve of dbdb and Sod12/2 mice. As we predicted, protein carbonyls were elevated 1.3060.10 fold in dbdb mice (p,0.05, Figure 3C) and 1.2460.08 fold (p,0.05, Figure 3D) in Sod12/2 mice compared to their respective controls. Since both cytosolic and detergent-soluble fractions exhibited elevation in protein carbonylation, we next asked whether the global state of protein conformation is affected in these experimental models by measuring protein hydrophobicity using a BisANS photolabeling approach. There was a 1.860.1 (p,0.001) fold increase in global exposure of hydrophobic pockets in sciatic nerves of dbdb mice (Figure 4A) and a 1.2660.03 fold increase (p,0.05, Figure 4B) in Sod12/2 mice.PMP22 is carbonylated and aggregated in dbdb sciatic nervesBecause we found a global increase in cytosolic and detergentsoluble sc.Ted with reduced sciatic NCV and increased tdml. We observed a 1.3860.04 (p,0.001) fold reduction in sciatic NCV by 4 months of age in dbdb mice (Figure 1A). 6-mo-old Sod12/2 mice also 10781694 demonstrated a 1.3660.07 (p,0.01) fold reduction in sciatic NCV (Figure 1B). The dbdb mice and Sod12/2 mice exhibited a 1.4160.04 fold (p,0.001) and 1.1260.02 fold (p,0.05) increase in tdml, respectively (Figure 1C D). Since demyelination is closely linked to reduced nerve conduction [2] and oxidative stress is associated with reduced sciatic NCV and increased tdml as shown in Figure 1A , we measured axon diameter, nerve fiber diameter and myelin thickness in 5-mo-old dbm and dbdb mice, and 6 and 20 mo-old Sod12/2 mice in toluidine blue stained sciatic nerve thick sections. Dbdb mice exhibited reduced axon, nerve fiber diameter and reduced myelin thickness when compared to comparable sized axons from sections obtained from the sciatic notch in dbm mice (Figure 2 A B, marked by asterisks). Moreover, a significant reduction in axon diameter/area (p,0.05), fiber diameter/area (p,0.001), myelin thickness/area (p,0.001) and increase in Gratio (axon diameter/fiber diameter) (p,0.001, Figure 2C) was also observed in these sections. Reductions in axon diameter, fiber diameter and myelin thickness in dbdb mice are consistent with previous studies [2]. In comparison, the Sod12/2 mice exhibited reduced axon and fiber diameters compared to age-matched wildtype mice at 6 months of age (Figure 2D E), which was confirmed by quantification of axon diameter/area (p,0.001) and fiber diameter/area (p,0.001). The myelin area was reduced but the results did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.16) (Figure 2F). However, 20 month Sod12/2 mice showed reductions in myelin thickness/area and fiber diameter/area (Figure 2G H). Quantification of nerve morphology demonstrated a significant reduction in fiber diameter/area (p,0.001), and myelin thickness/area (p,0.001) with concomitant increase in G-ratio (p,0.001), by 20 months of age (Figure 2). These results strongly suggest that oxidative stress is closely associated with alterations in peripheral nerve myelin morphology and function.cytosolic fraction of both dbdb mice (1.760.2 fold, p,0.01, Figure 3A) and Sod12/2 mice (1.360.1 fold, p,0.05, Figure 3B). This intriguing observation led us to examine if the protein carbonylation level is also elevated in the detergent-soluble fraction as it has been often found that protein oxidation, including protein carbonylation induces protein aggregation [42,43,44]. Therefore, we measured protein carbonylation in the detergent-soluble protein fraction isolated from the sciatic nerve of dbdb and Sod12/2 mice. As we predicted, protein carbonyls were elevated 1.3060.10 fold in dbdb mice (p,0.05, Figure 3C) and 1.2460.08 fold (p,0.05, Figure 3D) in Sod12/2 mice compared to their respective controls. Since both cytosolic and detergent-soluble fractions exhibited elevation in protein carbonylation, we next asked whether the global state of protein conformation is affected in these experimental models by measuring protein hydrophobicity using a BisANS photolabeling approach. There was a 1.860.1 (p,0.001) fold increase in global exposure of hydrophobic pockets in sciatic nerves of dbdb mice (Figure 4A) and a 1.2660.03 fold increase (p,0.05, Figure 4B) in Sod12/2 mice.PMP22 is carbonylated and aggregated in dbdb sciatic nervesBecause we found a global increase in cytosolic and detergentsoluble sc.