Suggested that significant kidney damage can appear before microalbuminuria occurs [10?2]. Neutrophil

Suggested that significant kidney damage can appear before microalbuminuria occurs [10?2]. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and livertype fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) are emerging as excellent biomarkers in the urine and plasma for the early prediction ofacute kidney injury [13,14]. NGAL is produced by neutrophils, which are markedly induced and released in injured epithelial cells, including kidney tubular cells [15]. L-FABP is expressed in renal proximal tubular cells and is assumed to be shed into urine in response to Terlipressin cost hypoxia caused by decreased peritubular capillary blood flow [16]. Recent studies have reported that high circulating NGAL levels appear to reflect the chronic inflammatory state of CKD patients [17]. Moreover, subjects with higher baseline NGAL showed a considerably increased 23115181 risk of worsening renal function [18]. Urinary L-FABP may be a useful clinical biomarker for monitoring chronic glomerular disease, and reflect the clinical prognosis of CKD [16,19]. However, the clinical application of NGAL and L-FABP in predicting the progression of diabetic nephropathy is still uncertain [20?3]. The aims of this prospective study were to determine the role of albuminuria, and serum and urine levels of NGAL and L-FABP as predictors of decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of patients with type 2 diabetes.Predicting GFR Decline in Type 2 DM PatientsTable 1. General characteristics and laboratory data of study subjects.Table 2. Distribution of albuminuria in study subjects.Initial (n = 140) Age (year) Sex (M/F) DM duration (month) SBP (mm Hg) DBP (mm Hg) BMI (kg/m ) Fasting sugar (mg/dl) HbA1c ( ) Total cholesterol (mg/dl) Triglyceride (mg/dl) HDL (mg/dl) LDL (mg/dl) HS-CRP (mg/dl) BUN (mg/dl) Creatinine (mg/dl) eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)Follow-up (n = 140) 58.569.8 72/68 110.1671.2 133.8616.9 77.669.4 27.766.8 149.8645.5 7.861.4 173.0636.0 188.86161.7 41.7612.2 98.0628.5 3.166.4 18.5611.6 1.461.3 74.4627.3 557.762092.5 90.6655.6 7657.764733.2 23.3621.0 8445.1611858.8 20.7 66.2 60.4 9.4 11.5 21.Urine albuminBaseline (n = 140) 52.90 35.00 12.10End of study (n = 140) 39.29 37.86 22.86P,0.PNormal Microalbuminuria Macroalbuminuria56.669.8 72/68 86.0671.2 136.0614.3 75.168.9 27.664.5 150.1647.9 7.861.6 178.1638.6 181.16134.4 39.9611.6 102.7639.2 2.866.6 17.468.8 1.261.4 86.4631.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054863.tipate in the 15857111 study. A total of 140 patients were enrolled into the study and gave their informed written consent. All the study subjects were treated Alprenolol price according to the ADA diabetes mellitus treatment guideline [24]. This study adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.MeasurementsThe demographic and clinical laboratory data were collected at baseline and the end of the study. The estimated GFR was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The GFR decline rate was calculated with the following equation: (GFR at the study end ?baseline GFR)/ (baseline GFR x follow-up duration). The urine albumin excretion rate was determined as the albumin amount of a 24-h urine collection. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed based on a 24-hour urine collection (from 30?00 mg/day). A urine albumin level above 300 mg/day was defined as macroalbuminuria. The renal injury markers, NGAL (human NGAL ELISA kit, Abnova Co., CA, US), and L-FABP (human L-FABP ELISA Kit, Hycult Biotech Inc.Suggested that significant kidney damage can appear before microalbuminuria occurs [10?2]. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and livertype fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) are emerging as excellent biomarkers in the urine and plasma for the early prediction ofacute kidney injury [13,14]. NGAL is produced by neutrophils, which are markedly induced and released in injured epithelial cells, including kidney tubular cells [15]. L-FABP is expressed in renal proximal tubular cells and is assumed to be shed into urine in response to hypoxia caused by decreased peritubular capillary blood flow [16]. Recent studies have reported that high circulating NGAL levels appear to reflect the chronic inflammatory state of CKD patients [17]. Moreover, subjects with higher baseline NGAL showed a considerably increased 23115181 risk of worsening renal function [18]. Urinary L-FABP may be a useful clinical biomarker for monitoring chronic glomerular disease, and reflect the clinical prognosis of CKD [16,19]. However, the clinical application of NGAL and L-FABP in predicting the progression of diabetic nephropathy is still uncertain [20?3]. The aims of this prospective study were to determine the role of albuminuria, and serum and urine levels of NGAL and L-FABP as predictors of decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of patients with type 2 diabetes.Predicting GFR Decline in Type 2 DM PatientsTable 1. General characteristics and laboratory data of study subjects.Table 2. Distribution of albuminuria in study subjects.Initial (n = 140) Age (year) Sex (M/F) DM duration (month) SBP (mm Hg) DBP (mm Hg) BMI (kg/m ) Fasting sugar (mg/dl) HbA1c ( ) Total cholesterol (mg/dl) Triglyceride (mg/dl) HDL (mg/dl) LDL (mg/dl) HS-CRP (mg/dl) BUN (mg/dl) Creatinine (mg/dl) eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)Follow-up (n = 140) 58.569.8 72/68 110.1671.2 133.8616.9 77.669.4 27.766.8 149.8645.5 7.861.4 173.0636.0 188.86161.7 41.7612.2 98.0628.5 3.166.4 18.5611.6 1.461.3 74.4627.3 557.762092.5 90.6655.6 7657.764733.2 23.3621.0 8445.1611858.8 20.7 66.2 60.4 9.4 11.5 21.Urine albuminBaseline (n = 140) 52.90 35.00 12.10End of study (n = 140) 39.29 37.86 22.86P,0.PNormal Microalbuminuria Macroalbuminuria56.669.8 72/68 86.0671.2 136.0614.3 75.168.9 27.664.5 150.1647.9 7.861.6 178.1638.6 181.16134.4 39.9611.6 102.7639.2 2.866.6 17.468.8 1.261.4 86.4631.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054863.tipate in the 15857111 study. A total of 140 patients were enrolled into the study and gave their informed written consent. All the study subjects were treated according to the ADA diabetes mellitus treatment guideline [24]. This study adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.MeasurementsThe demographic and clinical laboratory data were collected at baseline and the end of the study. The estimated GFR was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The GFR decline rate was calculated with the following equation: (GFR at the study end ?baseline GFR)/ (baseline GFR x follow-up duration). The urine albumin excretion rate was determined as the albumin amount of a 24-h urine collection. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed based on a 24-hour urine collection (from 30?00 mg/day). A urine albumin level above 300 mg/day was defined as macroalbuminuria. The renal injury markers, NGAL (human NGAL ELISA kit, Abnova Co., CA, US), and L-FABP (human L-FABP ELISA Kit, Hycult Biotech Inc.